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Count Axel von Fersen , after his return from America in June , was accepted into the queen's private society.
There were and still claims that the two were romantically involved,  but since most of their correspondence has been lost or destroyed, there is no conclusive evidence.
Around this time, pamphlets describing farcical sexual deviance including the Queen and her friends in the court were growing in popularity around the country.
As time went on, these came to focus more and more on the Queen. They described amorous encounters with a wide range of figures, from the Duchess de Polignac to Louis XV.
As these attacks increased, they were connected with the public's dislike of her association with the rival nation of Austria.
It was publicly suggested that her supposed behavior was learned at the court of the rival nation, particularly lesbianism, which was known as the "German vice".
In , the queen was busy with the creation of her " hamlet ", a rustic retreat built by her favored architect, Richard Mique , according to the designs of the painter Hubert Robert.
It was en vogue at the time for nobles to have recreations of small villages on their properties. It was also significantly smaller and less intricate than many other nobles'.
Those on music, often dedicated to her, were the most read, though she also liked to read history.
Initially banned by the king due to its negative portrayal of the nobility, the play was finally allowed to be publicly performed because of the queen's support and its overwhelming popularity at court, where secret readings of it had been given by Marie Antoinette.
The play was a disaster for the image of the monarchy and aristocracy. She wanted to be able to own her own property.
One that was actually hers, to then have the authority to bequeath it to "whichever of my children I wish"; choosing the child she thought could use it rather than it going through patriarchal inheritance laws or whims.
The purchase of Saint-Cloud thus damaged the public's image of the queen even further. On 27 March , Marie Antoinette gave birth to a second son, Louis Charles , who bore the title of duc de Normandie.
Marie Antoinette began to abandon her more carefree activities to become increasingly involved in politics in her role as Queen of France.
Marie Antoinette had profoundly disliked Rohan since the time he had been the French ambassador to Vienna when she was a child.
Despite his high clerical position at the Court, she never addressed a word to him. Mme de La Motte tricked Rohan into buying the necklace as a gift to Marie Antoinette, for him to gain the queen's favor.
Judged by the Parlement, Rohan was found innocent of any wrongdoing and allowed to leave the Bastille.
Marie Antoinette, who had insisted on the arrest of the Cardinal, was dealt a heavy personal blow, as was the monarchy, and despite the fact that the guilty parties were tried and convicted, the affair proved to be extremely damaging to her reputation, which never recovered from it.
Suffering from an acute case of depression, the king began to seek the advice of his wife. In her new role and with increasing political power, the queen tried to improve the awkward situation brewing between the assembly and the king.
Continuing deterioration of the financial situation despite cutbacks to the royal retinue and court expenses ultimately forced the king, the queen and the Minister of Finance, Calonne , at the urging of Vergennes, to call a session of the Assembly of Notables , after a hiatus of years.
The assembly was held for the purpose of initiating necessary financial reforms, but the Parlement refused to cooperate. The first meeting took place on 22 February , nine days after the death of Vergennes on 13 February.
Marie Antoinette did not attend the meeting and her absence resulted in accusations that the queen was trying to undermine its purpose.
It did not pass any reforms and, instead, fell into a pattern of defying the king. He began to institute more cutbacks at court while trying to restore the royal absolute power weakened by parliament.
The continued poor financial climate of the country resulted in the 25 May dissolution of the Assembly of Notables because of its inability to function, and the lack of solutions was blamed on the queen.
France's financial problems were the result of a combination of factors: several expensive wars; a large royal family whose expenditures were paid for by the state; and an unwillingness on the part of most members of the privileged classes, aristocracy, and clergy, to help defray the costs of the government out of their own pockets by relinquishing some of their financial privileges.
She had played a decisive role in the disgrace of the reformer ministers of finance, Turgot in , and Jacques Necker first dismissal in The political situation in worsened when, at Marie Antoinette's urging, the Parlement was exiled to Troyes on 15 August.
It further deteriorated when Louis XVI tried to use a lit de justice on 11 November to impose legislation. Finally, on 8 August, Louis XVI announced his intention to bring back the Estates General , the traditional elected legislature of the country, which had not been convened since While from late up to his death in June , Marie Antoinette's primary concern was the continued deterioration of the health of the Dauphin, who suffered from tuberculosis ,  she was directly involved in the exile of the Parlement , the May Edicts, and the announcement regarding the Estates-General.
She did participate in the King Council, the first queen to do this in over years since Marie de' Medici had been named Chef du Conseil du Roi , between and , and she was making the major decisions behind the scene and in the Royal Council.
Marie Antoinette was instrumental in the reinstatement of Jacques Necker as Finance Minister on 26 August, a popular move, even though she herself was worried that it would go against her if Necker proved unsuccessful in reforming the country's finances.
On the eve of the opening of the Estates-General, the queen attended the mass celebrating its return. The death of the Dauphin on 4 June, which deeply affected his parents, was virtually ignored by the French people,  who were instead preparing for the next meeting of the Estates-General and hoping for a resolution to the bread crisis.
As the Third Estate declared itself a National Assembly and took the Tennis Court Oath , and as people either spread or believed rumors that the queen wished to bathe in their blood, Marie Antoinette went into mourning for her eldest son.
In addition, she showed her determination to use force to crush the forthcoming revolution. The situation escalated on 20 June as the Third Estate, which had been joined by several members of the clergy and radical nobility, found the door to its appointed meeting place closed by order of the king.
It thus met at the tennis court in Versailles and took the Tennis Court Oath not to separate before it had given a constitution to the nation.
On 11 July at Marie Antoinette's urging Necker was dismissed and replaced by Breteuil, the queen's choice to crush the Revolution with mercenary Swiss troops under the command of one of her favorites, Pierre Victor, baron de Besenval de Brünstatt.
Marie Antoinette, whose life was as much in danger, remained with the king, whose power was gradually being taken away by the National Constituent Assembly.
On 5 October, a crowd from Paris descended upon Versailles and forced the royal family to move to the Tuileries Palace in Paris, where they lived under a form of house arrest under the watch of Lafayette's Garde Nationale , while the Comte de Provence and his wife were allowed to reside in the Petit Luxembourg , where they remained until they went into exile on 20 June Marie Antoinette continued to perform charitable functions and attend religious ceremonies, but dedicated most of her time to her children.
She blamed him for his support of the Revolution and did not regret his resignation in Lafayette, one of the former military leaders in the American War of Independence —83 , served as the warden of the royal family in his position as commander-in-chief of the Garde Nationale.
Despite his dislike of the queen—he detested her as much as she detested him and at one time had even threatened to send her to a convent—he was persuaded by the mayor of Paris, Jean Sylvain Bailly , to work and collaborate with her, and allowed her to see Fersen a number of times.
His relationship with the king was more cordial. As a liberal aristocrat, he did not want the fall of the monarchy but rather the establishment of a liberal one, similar to that of the United Kingdom , based on cooperation between the king and the people, as was to be defined in the Constitution of Publication of such calumnies continued to the end, climaxing at her trial with an accusation of incest with her son.
There is no evidence to support the accusations. Like Lafayette, Mirabeau was a liberal aristocrat.
He had joined the Third estate and was not against the monarchy, but wanted to reconcile it with the Revolution.
He also wanted to be a minister and was not immune to corruption. At least , persons participated from all over France, including 18, national guards, with Talleyrand , bishop of Autun , celebrating a mass at the autel de la Patrie "altar of the fatherland".
The king was greeted at the event with loud cheers of "Long live the king! There were even cheers for the queen, particularly when she presented the Dauphin to the public.
Mirabeau sincerely wanted to reconcile the queen with the people, and she was happy to see him restoring much of the king's powers, such as his authority over foreign policy, and the right to declare war.
Over the objections of Lafayette and his allies, the king was given a suspensive veto allowing him to veto any laws for a period of four years.
In March Pope Pius VI had condemned the Civil Constitution of the Clergy , reluctantly signed by Louis XVI, which reduced the number of bishops from to 93, imposed the election of bishops and all members of the clergy by departmental or district assemblies of electors, and reduced the Pope's authority over the Church.
The queen's political ideas and her belief in the absolute power of monarchs were based on France's long-established tradition of the divine right of kings.
This incident fortified her in her determination to leave Paris for personal and political reasons, not alone, but with her family.
Even the king, who had been hesitant, accepted his wife's decision to flee with the help of foreign powers and counter-revolutionary forces.
There had been several plots designed to help the royal family escape, which the queen had rejected because she would not leave without the king, or which had ceased to be viable because of the king's indecision.
Once Louis XVI finally did commit to a plan, its poor execution was the cause of its failure. After many delays, the escape was ultimately attempted on 21 June , but the entire family was arrested less than twenty-four hours later at Varennes and taken back to Paris within a week.
The escape attempt destroyed much of the remaining support of the population for the king. On the way to the capital they were jeered and insulted by the people as never before.
The prestige of the French monarchy had never been at such a low level. Brought safely back to Paris, they were met with total silence by the crowd.
Thanks to Barnave, the royal couple was not brought to trial and was publicly exonerated of any crime in relation with the attempted escape.
Marie Antoinette's first Lady of the Bedchamber, Mme Campan , wrote about what happened to the queen's hair on the night of 21—22 June, " After their return from Varennes and until the storming of the Tuileries on 10 August , the queen, her family and entourage were held under tight surveillance by the Garde Nationale in the Tuileries, where the royal couple was guarded night and day.
Four guards accompanied the queen wherever she went, and her bedroom door had to be left open at night. Her health also began to deteriorate, thus further reducing her physical activities.
On 17 July , with the support of Barnave and his friends, Lafayette's Garde Nationale opened fire on the crowd that had assembled on the Champ de Mars to sign a petition demanding the deposition of the king.
The estimated number of those killed varies between 12 and Lafayette's reputation never recovered from the event and, on 8 October, he resigned as commander of the Garde Nationale.
Their enmity continuing, Marie Antoinette played a decisive role in defeating him in his aims to become the mayor of Paris in November As her correspondence shows, while Barnave was taking great political risks in the belief that the queen was his political ally and had managed, despite her unpopularity, to secure a moderate majority ready to work with her, Marie Antoinette was not considered sincere in her cooperation with the moderate leaders of the French Revolution, which ultimately ended any chance to establish a moderate government.
Marie Antoinette continued to hope that the military coalition of European kingdoms would succeed in crushing the Revolution.
She counted most on the support of her Austrian family. After the death of her brother Joseph in , his successor, Leopold , was willing to support her to a limited degree.
Barnave had advised the queen to call back Mercy, who had played such an important role in her life before the Revolution, but Mercy had been appointed to another foreign diplomatic position [ where?
At the end of , ignoring the danger she faced, the Princesse de Lamballe , who was in London, returned to the Tuileries.
As to Fersen, despite the strong restriction imposed on the queen, he was able to see her a final time in February This resulted in the queen being viewed as an enemy, although she was personally against Austrian claims to French territories on European soil.
That summer, the situation was compounded by multiple defeats of the French armies by the Austrians, in part because Marie Antoinette passed on military secrets to them.
Barnave remained the most important advisor and supporter of the queen, who was willing to work with him as long as he met her demands, which he did to a large extent.
Barnave and the moderates comprised about lawmakers in the new Legislative Assembly; the radicals numbered around , and the rest around Initially, the majority was with Barnave, but the queen's policies led to the radicalization of the Assembly and the moderates lost control of the legislative process.
The moderate government collapsed in April to be replaced by a radical majority headed by the Girondins. The Assembly then passed a series of laws concerning the Church, the aristocracy, and the formation of new national guard units; all were vetoed by Louis XVI.
While Barnave's faction had dropped to members, the new Girondin majority controlled the legislative assembly with members.
The two strongest members of that government were Jean Marie Roland , who was minister of interior, and General Dumouriez , the minister of foreign affairs.
Dumouriez sympathized with the royal couple and wanted to save them but he was rebuffed by the queen. Marie Antoinette's actions in refusing to collaborate with the Girondins , in power between April and June , led them to denounce the treason of the Austrian comity, a direct allusion to the queen.
After Madame Roland sent a letter to the king denouncing the queen's role in these matters, urged by the queen, Louis XVI disbanded [ citation needed ] the government, thus losing his majority in the Assembly.
Dumouriez resigned and refused a post in any new government. At this point, the tide against royal authority intensified in the population and political parties, while Marie Antoinette encouraged the king to veto the new laws voted by the Legislative Assembly in This led in turn to a French declaration of war in April , which led to the French Revolutionary Wars and to the events of August , which ended the monarchy.
On 20 June , "a mob of terrifying aspect" broke into the Tuileries, made the king wear the bonnet rouge red Phrygian cap to show his loyalty to the Republic, insulted Marie Antoinette, accusing her of betraying France, and threatened her life.
In consequence, the queen asked Fersen to urge the foreign powers to carry out their plans to invade France and to issue a manifesto in which they threatened to destroy Paris if anything happened to the royal family.
The Brunswick Manifesto , issued on 25 July , triggered the events of 10 August  when the approach of an armed mob on its way to the Tuileries Palace forced the royal family to seek refuge at the Legislative Assembly.
Ninety minutes later, the palace was invaded by the mob, who massacred the Swiss Guards. A week later, several of the royal family's attendants, among them the Princesse de Lamballe , were taken for interrogation by the Paris Commune.
Transferred to the La Force prison , after a rapid judgment, Marie Louise de Lamballe was savagely killed on 3 September. Her head was affixed on a pike and paraded through the city to the Temple for the queen to see.
Marie Antoinette was prevented from seeing it, but fainted upon learning of it. On 21 September , the fall of the monarchy was officially declared and the National Convention became the governing body of the French Republic.
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Man habe die Räume einfach nur überholt und modernen Standards angepasst. Wer war diese Marie Antoinette wirklich?
So schrieb er es in seine Anklageschrift, die am Und für das Volk? Sie war wahlweise eine Hure oder eine Heilige, eine Märtyrerin oder eine Sünderin.
Je nach Stimmung, Zeitgeist, Epoche. Bildnis eines mittleren Charakters" von das Psychogramm dieser Frau schuf.
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